Let’s Learn: Dissect Panda Banking Malware’s "libinject" Process Injection Module

Goal: Unpack and dissect the Panda banking malware injection DLL module titled “libinject.dll.”
Source:
Panda Loader (MD5: 2548a068f7849490c56b63288a8ae5c2)
Panda Loader (unpacked) (MD5: adab9c2b1d897d6a157b82d59f9c2306)
Panda “libinject” (MD5: 47dcbc79f98ff4501619eb5d25da03bd)

Background:
 While analyzing one of the latest Panda malware spam campaings identified by @JAMESWT, I decided to investigate the binary deeper to see some interesting and/or undisclosed ways the malware interacts with the victim environment. Immediately what stood out to me is Panda’s DLL inject module due its compatibility with 32-bit (x86) and 64-bit (x64) architecture.

https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js By and large, the Panda banker malware leverages the following Windows NTDLL and kernel32 for process injection:

NtUnmapViewOfSection
ZwWow64ReadVirtualMemory64
ZwGetContextThread
ZwSetContextThread
ZwWow64QueryInformationProcess64
NtProtectVirtualMemory
RtlExitUserThread
NtCreateSection
CreateRemoteThread
WriteProcessMemory
ResumeThread

Analysis:
Panda Banker injection module outline

I. Export functions 
II. AcInitialize
III. AdInjectDll
IV. Yara Rule

I. Export functions
The Panda export ordinal functions are as follows:

  • AcInitialize: size_t function type that initializes the structures necessary for the injection export function.
  • AdInjectDll: DWORD function type that performs the process injection with the argument with the desired process ID (PID) as an argument of the DWRD type.

II.  AcInitialize

The functions contain check x64 process check via IsWOW64 returning an integer value. The pseudocoded C++ function is as follows:
The main AcInitialize module check_x64:

  v7 = 0;
  v2 = (FARPROC)dword_10004380;
  if ( dword_10004380
    || (v3 = GetModuleHandleW(L”KERNEL32.DLL”),
        v2 = GetProcAddress(v3, “IsWow64Process”),
        (dword_10004380 = (int)v2) != 0) )
  {
    if ( dwProcessId )
    {
      v4 = OpenProcess(1024u, 0, dwProcessId);
      v2 = (FARPROC)dword_10004380;
    }
    else
    {
      v4 = (HANDLE)a2;
    }
    if ( v4 )
    {
      v5 = ((int (__stdcall *)(HANDLE, int *))v2)(v4, &v7);
      v7 = v5 != 0 ? v7 : 0;
      if ( dwProcessId )
        CloseHandle(v4);
    }
  }

III. AdInjectDll main
The main AdInjectDll sets both createthreadfunction and injectfunction functions, pseudocoded as follows:

DWORD __stdcall AdInjectDll(DWORD dwProcessId)
{
  ULONG v1;
  int v2;
  HANDLE hObject[4];
  *(_OWORD *)hObject = 0i64;
  v1 = -1;
  hObject[2] = (HANDLE)dwProcessId;
  v2 = 0;
  if ( check_if_x64(dwProcessId, 0) )
    v2 = 16;
  hObject[0] = OpenProcess(1082u, 0, dwProcessId);
  if ( hObject[0] )
  {
    if ( createthreadfunction((int)hObject, v2) )
    {
      v1 = injectfunction(hObject, v2);
      CloseHandle(hObject[1]);
    }
    CloseHandle(hObject[0]);
  }
  else
  {
    v1 = GetLastError();
  }
  return v1;
}

A. createthreadfunction
Creates thread either via CreateRemoteThread or NtCreateThreadEx (or both)


B. injectfunction
The malware createa a section via NtCreate and calls NtMapViewOfSection to unmap the payload in memory.
One of the notable Panda features is its  compatibility with x32/x64 architectures is achieved by using IsWow64Process (definition of OS architecture).
ZwWow64QueryInformationProcess64-ZwWow64ReadVirtualMemory64 are used for searching NTDLL in PEB, then for searching API addresses required for work of injecting DLL module (x32/x64) which is being located in AP svchost by using NtCreateSection-NtMapViewOfSection-NtUnmapViewOfSection ResumeThread-Sleep-SuspendThread are used for unmapping and injecting the payload into the main thread.
IV. Yara Rule

rule crime_win32_64_panda_libinject_dll_module {
meta:
description = “Panda Banker linject DLL modile”
author = “@VK_Intel”
reference = “Detects Panda Banker libinject.dll”
date = “2018-01-10”
hash = “75db065b70c6bce9117e46a6201d870e580d07b7c3ee6d2ddab34df0b5dff51f”
strings:
$lib = “libinject.dll” fullword ascii

$export1 = “AdInjectDll” fullword ascii
$export2 = “AcInitialize” fullword ascii

$import0 = “ZwWow64QueryInformationProcess64” fullword ascii
$import1 = “ZwWow64ReadVirtualMemory64” fullword ascii
$import2 = “NtCreateSection” fullword ascii
$import3 = “NtUnmapViewOfSection” fullword ascii
$import4 = “NtGetContextThread” fullword ascii
$import5 = “NtSetContextThread” fullword ascii
$import6 = “WriteProcessMemory” fullword ascii
$import7 = “ResumeThread” fullword ascii
$import8 = “CreateRemoteThread” fullword ascii
$import9 = “VirtualAllocEx” fullword ascii

condition:
all of ($export*) and one of $lib and all of ($import*)
}

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s