Goal: Unpack and dissect the Panda banking malware injection DLL module titled “libinject.dll.”
Panda Loader (MD5: 2548a068f7849490c56b63288a8ae5c2)
Panda Loader (unpacked) (MD5: adab9c2b1d897d6a157b82d59f9c2306)
Panda “libinject” (MD5: 47dcbc79f98ff4501619eb5d25da03bd)
While analyzing one of the latest Panda malware spam campaings identified by @JAMESWT, I decided to investigate the binary deeper to see some interesting and/or undisclosed ways the malware interacts with the victim environment. Immediately what stood out to me is Panda’s DLL inject module due its compatibility with 32-bit (x86) and 64-bit (x64) architecture.
— JAMESWT (@JAMESWT_MHT) January 9, 2018
https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js By and large, the Panda banker malware leverages the following Windows NTDLL and kernel32 for process injection:
Panda Banker injection module outline
I. Export functions
The Panda export ordinal functions are as follows:
- AcInitialize: size_t function type that initializes the structures necessary for the injection export function.
- AdInjectDll: DWORD function type that performs the process injection with the argument with the desired process ID (PID) as an argument of the DWRD type.
The functions contain check x64 process check via IsWOW64 returning an integer value. The pseudocoded C++ function is as follows:
The main AcInitialize module check_x64:
III. AdInjectDll main
The main AdInjectDll sets both createthreadfunction and injectfunction functions, pseudocoded as follows:
Creates thread either via CreateRemoteThread or NtCreateThreadEx (or both)
The malware createa a section via NtCreate and calls NtMapViewOfSection to unmap the payload in memory.
One of the notable Panda features is its compatibility with x32/x64 architectures is achieved by using IsWow64Process (definition of OS architecture).
ZwWow64QueryInformationProcess64-ZwWow64ReadVirtualMemory64 are used for searching NTDLL in PEB, then for searching API addresses required for work of injecting DLL module (x32/x64) which is being located in AP svchost by using NtCreateSection-NtMapViewOfSection-NtUnmapViewOfSection ResumeThread-Sleep-SuspendThread are used for unmapping and injecting the payload into the main thread.
IV. Yara Rule